DR.Ihsan S. Rabeea…….The antimicrobial Effects of Honey
The antimicrobial Effects of Honey
The antimicrobial Effects of Honey
Honey has long been known to possess antibacterial properties and has an established usage as wound dressing, The topical application of honey has been reported to clear existing wound infection rapidly. It acts against several bacteria such as pseudomonas, staphylococci, streptococci and E. coli. Even some antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as MRSA and VRE are reportedly sensitive. Several properties are attributing to its antimicrobial effects:
1. Honey has a low water content, thus facilitating an “osmotic effect” which leaves very little water molecules for microbial growth. However, the rate of inhibition of growth varies with the species of bacteria, the antibacterial activity and the source of honey.
2. Honey has a low pH between 3.2 to 4.5, and this acidity is low enough to inhibit the growth of most microorganisms.
3. Production of hydrogen peroxide, as result of glucose oxidase activity, has a very potent bactericidal activity, similar to those produced by the macrophages. This reaction occurs after the honey has been diluted in the wound. The gradually released hydrogen peroxide has an adverse effect on bacteria but not on the normal cells, thus creating no cellular damage.
4. Several still not fully characterized phytochemicals with antibacterial activity are present in honey.
However, not all these antibacterial activities need to act simultaneously, for example the osmotic effect is possibly the first to come in play and with subsequent dilution with wound fluid hydrogen peroxide is generated and takes over this role. The phytochemicals do not lose their antibacterial activity therefore can act at later stages of wound infection. The combination of this antibacterial activity makes honey a special natural product that withstand test of time. In addition to that prolonged use of honey does not lead to development of drug resistance as those experienced with antibiotics used, principally because the actions of honey are not mediated via a single mechanism thus limits the ability of resistance factors to gain success in controlling the growth of the microbes
DR.Dhafer A.F…..Drawback Real-Time qRT-PCR
Drawback Real-Time qRT-PCR
We can summarized some of common hazards of qRT-PCR in the that should be taken in consideration when we design an experiment:
1. Inferior Primer and Probe Design: We strongly recommend using reliable primer design software for most efficient PCR primer and probe sets. These software uses adjustable parameters for optimal primer and probe design.
2. Using bad quality of RNA: Degraded or impure RNA can limit the efficiency of the RT reaction and reduce yield. RNA should either be prepared from fresh tissue, or from tissue treated with an RNA stabilization solution.
3. Not using master mix: qRT-PCR is a highly sensitive tool for analyzing RNA. As the PCR amplifies the target, errors are simultaneously amplified. Therefore, variability should be kept to a minimum whenever possible. A master mix should be used when setting up multiple reactions to minimize sample-to-sample and well-to-well variation and improve reproducibility.
4. The efficiency of the reaction is outside the acceptable range: The efficiency of the PCR should be 90–110% ( 3.6 > slope > 3.1), A number of variables can affect the efficiency of the PCR. These factors can include length of the amplicon, secondary structure, and primer design. Although valid data can be obtained that fall outside of the efficiency range, the qRT-PCR should be further optimized or alternative amplicon designed