The cross-sectional study conducted in the faculty of pharmacy in the University of Kufa indicates that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in diabetic patients was common. To know the role of vitamin D in such population, the in vivo and in vitro studies indicate the potential involvement of vitamin D in glucose metabolism through stimulation of insulin secretion via the vitamin D receptors on pancreatic β cells and decrement of peripheral insulin resistance through vitamin D receptors in muscle and liver. Additionally , the observational studies have indicated an association between vitamin D deficiency and the onset and progression of diabetes type 2 in addition of development of future complications of this disease such as neuropathy and retinopathy because the achievement of good glycemic control is important to prevent diabetic complications and many studies shown the association of glycemic control and vitamin D deficiency where inverse relationship has been observed in diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia . Moreover, a study conducted in Iran evaluated the effect of vitamin D on insulin resistance in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Researchers found that raising the level of vitamin D improved the fasting plasma glucose and reduced insulin resistance in these patients. Another study that was conducted in Saudi Arabia found that vitamin D supplementation significantly improved their insulin resistance and lipid profile. So the maintaining of normal serum level of vitamin D is necessary and this can be accomplished by maintaining of daily intake of 600-800 IU of vitamin D for adults, based on the U.S. National Academy of Medicine’s recommendations. Where the exposure to sunlight is one of the best sources of this nutrient and eat the foods that provide vitamin D like fatty fish, like tuna, mackerel, and salmon, some dairy products, orange juice, soy milk, and cereals, beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks. While the vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is a good source in case of vitamin D deficiency.
Assistant Lecturer. Ali Shlash abd ulhamza al-ibrahimy