Transdermal drug delivery system is applied to give a range of advantages over other conventional dosage forms. It may get rid of several variables factors related to the oral intake and it avoids the first pass effect, influence of food, gastric emptying and intestinal motility and transit times.
The skin impermeability of human being is regarded as the most important problem for transdermal drug delivery system. The rate of penetration across the skin is specified by Fick’s first law equation which explains passive drug move through bio membranes. There are many approaches for overcoming the barricade offered by an intact stratum corneum, but vesicles and particles (as liposomes and niosomes) can play the most important part in representation of biological membranes, and in carrying and targeting of therapeutic agents. The basic structures of vesicles are amphiphilic molecules in a bilayer arrangement. In an excess of aqueous phase, these amphiphilic molecules can form either unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles. A large range of lipids and surfactants can be used to organize vesicles. The majority of these vesicles are composed of phospholipids or non-ionic surfactants. These are referred to as liposomes and niosomes or nonionic surfactant vesicles.
Niosomes are vascular systems used as safe and useful carriers for delivering both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These vesicles are considered as drug delivery systems, which are designed using non-ionic surfactants. Niosome can be used for large-scale manufacture of stable drug products and can be prepared according to the wanted conditions.
There is no special circumstance for storing and holding of niosomal formulations. Due to their ability to act as a reservoir for wide ranging of medicines, the application of niosomal technology has been used in many drug delivery systems such as controlled release system and suitable penetration enhancers through the skin. The incorporation of drug inside vesicles can be provided sustained release for prolonged drug action and reduce undesirable effects by drug targeting to the site of action.